10 Invoicing Software Tools for Freelancers, Including Free Options

10 Invoicing Software Tools for Freelancers, Including Free Options

Invoicing is something every freelance writer has to do. After all, earning money is what distinguishes us from the “writing just for fun” writers — but to earn that money, we have to actually invoice our clients.

While you might start by learning how to make an invoice in Microsoft Word, eventually you’ll want to transition to an invoicing software or invoice generator that automates some of the work.

But what’s the best invoice maker for freelancers? Between Freshbooks, ZoHo, Bonsai, Wave and more… there are so many choices available, it can be intimidating.

Invoicing software options for freelance writers

We went on a mission to find some good options for you, including several free invoice maker tools. Our goal here is to take the hassle out of choosing an invoice generator, so you can get on with getting paid.

To accomplish this, we signed up for trial accounts with 10 different online invoicing companies.

For each invoice maker, we set a time limit of 30 minutes to explore and create mock invoices. We used that time to note any immediately positive features (pros) as well as anything that stuck out as challenging or frustrating (cons).

We also checked out their cheapest and most expensive payment plans — and noted which software offered a free option — and we’re eager to share the results of our experiment.

Here are some recommended invoicing software tools.

1. Bonsai

Pros: Properly pronounced “bone-sigh,” this invoicing system is as well-manicured as the miniature trees it’s named for. We also love that “writing” is one of the top three options when the software asks “what do you do?” as part of setup. 

With Bonsai (also known as Hello Bonsai because of its URL), you can quickly create one-time, recurring, and recurring auto-payment invoices, all of which allow you to easily add in specifics like discounts, taxes, peripheral expenses, and even preferred payment method.

Bonsai also offers time tracking, expenses, and integrates a proposal and contract system — which we especially love for freelance writers, who all too often work without any formal agreements made in writing. You can easily have your client e-sign a contract or approve a proposed estimate before you start working, which can provide some much-needed stability to your freelance career.

Cons: Bonsai is clean-looking and easy to use, but you do have to pay for the privilege. However, plans start at a reasonable $16 per month and include unlimited projects, and there’s even a neat referral system that gets you a free month when you successfully recruit a friend. 

Free Plan: Not really… though they do have a cool referral program, as mentioned above. 

Paid Plans: $16 per month for the majority of the software’s capabilities, including unlimited projects, customizable branding, advanced reporting and chat support. You can upgrade to the $24 per month plan for white labeling, sub-contracting, and to add additional users, which will also require an additional $9 per person. (Keep in mind that these rates are only available if you pay on an annual basis!) 

Best For: Freelancers who may be considering adding employees or colleagues to their team, and who want to be able to send professional proposals and contracts to solidify their relationships with their clients.

2. Freshbooks

Pros: We were immediately blown away by Freshbooks — it’s an invoicing website that truly does everything. They had a built-in time tracker, a team management system and even a way to connect your accountant to your Freshbooks account to make tax time easier!

From the moment we signed up, we felt like they “got” what we, as freelance writers, need: There were options for “content marketer” and “copywriter” (among other writing-related career choices) as Company options on the sign-up sheet. Nice!

The new FreshBooks also offers an invoice app for mobile, both iOS and Android, so self-employed professionals can run their businesses anytime, anywhere.

They also have an excellent referral/affiliate program.

Cons: Since we were basing this article on how “intuitive” the site was for new users with limited time on their hands, we have to say that the “bigness” of the site could be a bit overwhelming for new users just looking to invoice a client. 

Also, there’s no longer a free option; you’ll need to upgrade to a paid monthly plan to use the service after the initial 30-day free trial. That said, even when it existed, the free plan was pretty useless, only allowing you to invoice one client per month.

Free Plan: None, though you can check out the service with a 30-day free trial.

Paid Plans: $15 per month for one user and five clients; $25 per month for 1 user and 50 clients; or $50 per month for one user and 500 clients.

Best For: Just about any freelancer, to be honest! Freshbooks is popular in the industry for a reason.

3. Zoho

Pros: Like Bonsai, Zoho is one of the only invoicing software tools we tested that integrates a digital proposal option. Called “estimates,” these documents automatically roll over into invoices if your client accepts your terms. They also allow you to send transactions by “snail mail,” though you have to purchase additional credits to do so. 

What’s more, Zoho had an extensive Reports page with more than 25 different categories. It wasn’t just organized, it was micro-organized! For someone like us — the tightly-wound physical embodiment of organization — the extra effort they put into their record-keeping is a welcome feature.

Cons: While Zoho’s invoicing software is pretty easy to navigate, be forewarned that if you go to the main Zoho page, you might be overwhelmed. The company also offers accounting services, IT management, and CRM software, many of which may be beyond the scope of your needs as a freelance writer. 

Free Plan: Yes. You get one user and you can invoice up to five clients. 

Paid Plans: $9 per month allows you to invoice up to 50 clients; $19 per month allows you to invoice up to 500 and also unlocks some additional features (and can be accessed by up to 3 users); $29 per month allows unlimited clients, up to 10 users, and even a custom domain through the system.

Best For: Because Zoho also offers a wide range of other business organizational tools, we like this option for freelancers who may expand their company in the future.

4. Harvest

Pros: The thing we liked best about Harvest was the finished invoice: it was easy to read and the total amount due was written both at the bottom in large numbers and in normal-size print within the invoice itself. Even if you have one of those clients who hates to read (we’ve all had them), there’s no way they could “accidentally” skip over the amount they owe you!

We also liked the variety of viewpoints Harvest gives you of your work. You can set up a variety of projects and access reports that show you exactly how much of your valuable time you’re using on different tasks and clients — which is key for maximizing your rates. 

Cons: Our original “con” for Harvest was that their time tracker was tucked away and hard to find on their site; however, they’ve since reconfigured the site and “Time” is now the very first tab at the top… so… no cons, really! 

Free Plan: Yes. You can have one user (yourself) and send invoices to unlimited clients.

Paid Plans: $12 per month for one user and unlimited clients – which also allows you to use their apps and online extensions. Plus, you get a 10% discount if you pay for it yearly.

Best For: Writers who regularly invoice the same client with similar projects (as the software easily allows you to set up reusable templates), as well as those who really want to key into where their time is going.

5. Quaderno

Pros: Quaderno was specifically made and marketed toward freelancers, and our initial impression was that they “got” us.

And by “got” us, we mean they understand one of the biggest freelancer struggle: taxes.

Quaderno’s whole schtick these days is that they make figuring out your taxes a whole lot easier, automatically calculating and adding your sales tax to your invoices (if you desire). When it comes time to file your return, you can access all the data in easy-to-read reports. And the invoices themselves are clean and minimal: they get the job done in an eminently readable fashion.

Cons: The main “con” with Quaderno is that it doesn’t have a free plan — and the paid plans they do have are pretty pricey (see below). Also, all that functionality comes with a bit of a learning curve, and you’ll need to click around a bit to get a hang of the software.  

Free Plan: None. You get a seven-day free trial and then you have to get a paid plan if you wish to continue.

Paid Plans: Plans start at the $49-per-month “startup” tier, which gets you up to 250 transactions and 2,500 Tax API calls. While that level would cover a lot of freelancers, if you need more, you’ll pay for it: upper tiers are $99, $149, and $249 per month. 

Best For: Quaderno is specifically set up to help you handle both domestic and international clients, so if you’re a remote nomad or your business is worldwide, this might be a great option.

6. Simplybill

Pros: Simplybill is exactly what you’d expect it to be: Simple. There were about four tabs to choose from and within each page, everything was written out in large letters and chunked into easy-to-understand sections. Simplybill was a no-brainer when it came to creating invoices — we didn’t even need a full half-hour!

We were also amused that a site that embraced simplicity so thoroughly had a total of 37 different template designs to choose from (hidden way in the “Settings”). Fancying up my invoice was optional, but discovering said option was a fun surprise.

Cons: Simplybill doesn’t do anything but invoice clients. While simplicity can be appealing, if you’re looking for other functions (like time tracking), this isn’t the invoicing site for you. Also, the site only accepts payment for subscriptions via PayPal, so if you don’t have a PayPal account, that’s an additional hassle.

Free Plan: Sort of. You get one user and unlimited clients; however, you can only send out three invoices per month.

Paid Plans: $5 per month for one user and unlimited clients (but you can only send out 25 invoices per month!); $15 gets you 100 invoices, and for unlimited. 

Best For: Solo freelancers looking for an uber-simplistic invoice generator.

7. Paymo

Pros: Whether you’re a solo freelancer or someone who regularly works as part of a team, Paymo is a great way to track your projects from start to finish, even allowing you to separate out sub-tasks in the implementation, planning, and launch phases. The invoices themselves are easy to make and clean-looking, and the software offers all the other extras that are quickly becoming industry standard: time tracking, expense reports, etc.

But despite the extensiveness of functionality, Paymo still maintains a startup feel — in the good way. For example, the introductory email you get allows you to send a direct reply to the CEO, who even asks you outright to do so.

Cons: We love a lot about the way Paymo is set up on the backend, but the multiplicity of tasks and subtasks can make time reports look cluttered. (That said, you’ll get even more granular data on where your days are going, which could be super useful.)

Furthermore, with only three invoices allowed at the free level, you pretty much have to upgrade to a paid plan to use this system seriously.

Free Plan: While there is a free option, it only allows you to send three invoices per month. 

Paid Plans: $9.95/user/month gets you unlimited invoicing capacity and extended functionality; if you work on a larger team, upgrading to $15.95/user/month unlocks Gannt charts, resource scheduling, onboarding, training, and more.

Best For: With its focus on multi-user management, Paymo is our pick for freelancers who are solidly team players.

8. Wave

Pros: If you’re looking for an all-inclusive invoicing platform that also integrates functionality like payment receipts, recurring invoices, expense tracking, and even the ability to run payroll, Wave invoicing has you covered. Honestly, it’s harder to find something you can’t do with this software… but even just on the invoicing front, it’s uber-detail oriented. I mean, you can use an actual hex color code to nail down your exact invoice accent color.

Better yet, this system is honest-to-goodness free at the basic level: you’ll get unlimited invoicing, top-of-the-line accounting software, and receipt scanning for $0 per month, though invoices paid directly through the system are subject to a 2.9%+$0.30 fee (which is pretty standard). 

Cons: As with a few of the other invoicing systems we’ve reviewed here, the increased functionality is a bit of a missed blessing. There’s a lot to see, and even with its helpful launchpad and step-by-step guide system, you’re going to have to click around a bunch before you feel like you’re getting the full functionality.  

Free Plan: Yup — and it’s actually fully functional. Score. 

Paid Plans: You’ll pay an invoicing fee of 2.9%+$0.30 per transaction, as well as ACH transfer fees starting at 1%. If you need to use the program to run payroll, you’ll upgrade to a monthly plan starting at a $20 base fee and moving up depending on what features you need to implement. 

Best For: This system is our pick for freelancers who’ve been DIY-ing their accounting and want a free way to take their bookkeeping to the next level.

9. Invoicely

Pros: Yet another powerful platform offering multiple functionalities, including digital estimates, expense tracking, and the ability to hyper-customize your company’s branding and appearance. Invoicely really stands out to us because it’s one of the few systems we’ve encountered that offers unlimited invoicing for free (though some of the other functionality may be limited).

At upgraded levels, Invoicely offers an easy way to track mileage, so if you’re a freelance writer who frequently travels for work — such as, to interviews or reporting locations — it’s nice to have an easy way to calculate that deduction.  

Cons: Although the free level does offer unlimited invoicing, customization abilities are limited and you’ll have to accept payments through PayPal… in which case, it might be more parsimonious to keep everything on PayPal. (See: list item #10!) 

Free Plan: Yes. Win.

Paid Plans: Plans start at $9 per month for up to two team members and full access to Invoicely’s functions, and move up from there based on the number of users who need access.

10. PayPal

Pros: PayPal is an OG invoice maker for good reason: it’s easy to use, has a great search function for invoice records, and doesn’t come at any additional cost beyond the 2.9%+$0.30 fee assessed per transaction. 

These days, PayPal has stepped up its game with built-in estimates, recurring invoices, reports offering sales insights and more.

It makes sense to use PayPal for invoicing if all (or most) of your clients will be paying via PayPal anyway!

Cons: PayPal is really all about the money, and doesn’t offer some of the upgraded business-organizational features the other platforms do, like time tracking. And the home page can be a little inscrutable for new users; it takes a while to figure out where all the functions you need access to live. 

Free Plan: Yes, in a sense. PayPal doesn’t charge any extra fees for sending out invoices; however, once your client pays, the usual PayPal fee will be taken out of your earnings.

Paid Plans: See above. Same percentage applies.

Do you use an invoicing site to bill your clients? Are you using one of the 10 we reviewed? How have you enjoyed your experience?

This post contains affiliate links. That means if you purchase through our links, you’re supporting The Write Life — and we thank you for that!

The original version of this story was written by Lauren Spear (née Tharp). We updated the post so it’s more useful for our readers.

Photo via Andrey_Popov / Shutterstock 

Filed Under: Freelancing
FREE NEWSLETTER

Enjoyed that post? Subscribe for more:

114 comments

  • Daryl says:

    Thanks for the help Lauren!

    I’m stunned by the fact that I’ve been using Paypal for almost two years to receive payments for my writing and I had literally no idea that it had an invoice function – I’ve been doing them all in excel!

    Have you come across any invoice systems that reduce the Paypal fees for non-US writers or is this something Paypal only allows in the US?

    • Hey, Daryl!

      Right? PayPal’s invoices are hard to find if you don’t know where to look! They’re very handy to have though. Nice and simple, too. 😉 Give it a try sometime!

      As for invoicing systems that reduce PayPal fees… I’m not really sure. There are a few above — if you check the “Editor’s Note” sections — that reduce the fees for US-based clients, but I don’t know if they have a similar option for International users (you could ask!).

      Carrie wrote a great article on here back in February called “How to Invoice International Clients Without Paying Tons of Fees” — http://thewritelife.com/invoice-international-clients/ — that *might* be useful for you.

      Alternatively, you’re always welcome to ask in the free forum on Be A Freelance Blogger. http://beafreelanceblogger.com/forum I know there have been similar questions on there in the past — and we have a LOT of International bloggers on there! — so you may be able to get your answer that way. 🙂

      Thanks for reading!

      • Ted Fuller says:

        @Daryl You can also try inveezy.com since it invoices with Paypal. It’s easier to find! 🙂

        • Julie Ross Myers says:

          I bill some projects on a flat rate project basis and others on an hourly rate. I also require either full payment or 50% payment upfront, depending on the size of the job. After much experimentation, I have settled on Zoho Invoicing. I can set it to automatically generate a retainer invoice when a client approves a project, and the client can pay on the spot with a credit card tied to PayPal, Stripe, or both. Cash flow is more important than ever these days, so anything I can do to automate the process helps.

      • shel Turner says:

        Hi Lauren,

        I am a client in search for a writer to do a biography. Please respond.

    • Oh wow, Daryl — I’m glad Lauren was able to share some other options!

      As far as I know, PayPal Business Payments is only available for U.S.-based accounts and clients. I’m also outside the U.S. and would love to hear of any similar programs!

      Heather
      TWL Assistant Editor

      • Hey, Daryl!

        I responded to your comment this morning, but it looks like it didn’t go through… Maybe I included too many links or something. :\

        I mentioned that there’s an article here on The Write Life written by Carrie that deals with this aspect a little bit. Also, this is a topic that sometimes comes up on the Be A Freelance Blogger (free) forum.

        I hope you can find an option that works for you!!

  • Hello Lauren, thanks for such amazing tips 🙂

  • Hi Lauren,
    Nice, informative post. I use Billings Pro by Market Circle – mainly because I also use their Daylight customer relationship software, and they’re integrated. But Billings can be stand alone. Very full-fledged system. The basics are pretty straightforward, but I’ve always found their Design function (for invoices etc.) not very intuitive. There’s a free (1 invoice/mo) version and a $5/month for 5 invoices/mo for those just starting out. Recommended.

    • Thanks for the tip, Michael! Hopefully some of our other readers will see your comment if they’re not satisfied with any of the ten mentioned in my article. 🙂

      Maybe someday I’ll do a “Part 2” and spend half an hour on ten MORE invoicing sites to test their intuitiveness. I’ll be sure to stop by Billings Pro if I do. 😉

  • Thank you for this! I was having a little freak out on what to use 🙂 this was very helpful.

    • You’re very welcome, Logan! 🙂 A lot of freelancers find invoicing to be the “scary” part of the job. It’s nice that there are programs out there that make it a little less intimidating…

  • Ellen Gregory says:

    Hi – I fell into using Harvest because of its ability to integrate with Xero (cloud-based accounting software). i.e. I track time and generate invoices in Harvest and then push them into Xero. I’ve found it very easy to use for my simple needs. There’s a mobile app for Harvest too, although it only seems to be good for tracking time.

    I wasn’t even aware of all the alternatives, so this opened my eyes somewhat. Thanks for an informative post.

    • Hi, Ellen! Thanks for commenting. 🙂

      Unless I’m mistaken, Alexis (The Write Life’s Managing Editor) also uses Harvest as her invoicing system…

      As a side note, I really enjoy Toggl for time-tracking. It doesn’t have an invoicing system, but if anyone on here’s looking for a good time-tracker app, that’d be the one I’d recommend. haha.

      I’m glad you liked the article!

    • I’m in the same boat Ellen. I find the integration between Harvest and Xero works really well for both me and my Bookkeeper.

  • Jacky Morales says:

    Wow! So informative! I wish I would’ve read this months ago when I was researching the hundreds of different options online, it’s an endless search. I started off using Paymo actually but wasn’t aware they had a new version so I ended up switching to Freshbooks for a while. It was great for invoicing but I was having to enter my clients multiple times across Freshbooks, SalesForce (my CRM), and quickbooks. I only noticed how time consuming this was when my wife saw me working and adding the same customer 3 times across different programs. I ended up finding paypanther and have been with them since about April now. Pretty happy so far as they had everything all in one so no more need to entering multiple people again. Never used the snail mail feature you mentioned but it would be cool if they offered that I guess if I have to send an invoice in the mail one day.

    • Hey, Jacky!

      I hear ya!! My original review of Paymo was “Paymo’s website reminded me of the freebie website I set up as a teen in the early 2000’s. I may have actually uttered ‘Yikes’ before diving in… Despite the multitude of great features, everything on their site felt very spread out and awkward.” Thank goodness the CEO contacted me about the BETA version! lol. It’s so much better. 😀

      Glad you found something that worked for you though. If you ever end up using the snail mail function, let us know how it goes!

  • Rohi says:

    Thanks, Lauren.
    This is very useful – especially the info about Paypal.

  • I saved this page so I can try some of these places myself later! At the moment all of my billing has been done on my own, as Daryl mentioned in a previous comment. The option to keep better track of my clients and have an easier way to do invoicing definitely appeals to me, so I really appreciate you doing all this “grunt work!”

    Thank you so much for going through all these services and describing them so thoroughly and clearly for us.

  • Wow! Thanks for this. I’m about to form an LLC and start my pay for pen side career. Since I got laid off and have some time while I’m ramping up for my next 9 to 5 gig. Inoicing is something I’ll need to think about as I get started. Excellent post and very helpful for a newbie like myself 😉

  • Amin Mekhid says:

    Lauren,

    Thanks for sharing these useful information. Invoices is needed if we want to be paid, and most of us forget how it could be hard to create / send / follow those invoices sometimes. it’s not our job, we need to be focus elsewhere 🙂

    I use a solution called “Sale n’go” since a few weeks – http://www.salengo.co.uk . I can manage my contact list, create an invoice in less than a minute, and have a compte follow up by the system.

    I would recommend testing it.

    any questions, let me know.

    -Amin

  • Bob Saget says:

    Lauren,

    That is a very thorough comparison with a lot of great points.

    I am a freelancer that does a lot of invoicing with international clients and I have been using InvoiceOcean for a while now. It lets you issue bilingual invoices and converts to all currencies. So technically you and your client don’t need to speak the same language to invoice each other properly.

  • Carol says:

    A nice list, Lauren. I’ve tried two online invoicing software mentioned on the list (i.e. Freshbooks – too many unnecessary functions & Harvest – unfriendly user interface…). Therefore, right now I am using Invoiceberry https://www.invoiceberry.com
    So far so happy. They don’t have time-tracking that some freelancers need, but I don’t need it, so it’s fine for me.

    • Thank you, Carol! I’m glad you enjoyed the post. 🙂 I hadn’t heard of Invoiceberry, but I’m happy you mentioned it. It’s always good to have more options! (And, if I’m honest, I currently only have one client I need to use a time-tracker for and I use Toggl for that. Hehe).

  • Monique says:

    Wonderful, wonderful article Lauren! Some really good points here and just what I was looking for too. What a great idea for an article! 🙂

  • Lindsay says:

    Hey Lauren!

    Thanks for the awesome FreshBooks mention. Great article!

    Cheers,
    Lindsay@FreshBooks

  • james says:

    surprised nobody’s mentioned blinksale yet. used them for years – super happy! $15 a month, integrates with paypal, great reporting, customized invoices, etc. check ’em out. no – i’m not getting paid to write this. wish i were!

  • vanina says:

    Hello there! we created invoiceatonce.com
    It is a 100% free, no registration needed online invoice generator for freelancers. Use our templates and save your invoices, you don’t need an account.
    We would love if you can try it and give us your feedback about it!

  • I love, love, love Freshbooks. My clients love how I can set it up so that they can see how much time I’m spending and billing on a given project. I love that I get paid faster with the PayPal link. We all love how my invoices look. And most of all I love how the smart, friendly, helpful, English-speaking Freshbooks people are always there at the end of the line and quickly solve any problem I may have with the site. Using Freshbooks has taken the terror — and time — out of tracking the money in my freelance work.

  • My husband has used PayPal to invoice for years. He’s created his own custom invoice/time tracking system, but it’s a but kludgy for me. For some time, I have used my own spreadsheet and clock, but I recently found Harvest and it works for me! I am trying to get a better handle on how I manage my own time and have been using Harvest to clock my daily tasks so that in a week I can see where I spend my time when I am not billable. It may not always work for me, but for now, I like it.

    Thank you for taking the time to research this!

    • I’m glad you’re enjoying Harvest, Mary! I think it’s all about finding a system that works for you. I love my time tracker as well — it’s so helpful to see how I’m spending my time and how I can be more productive.

      Heather
      TWL Assistant Editor

    • Haha. I’m all-too-familiar with the “spreadsheet and clock” method for time-tracking, Mary! I was so happy when I was introduced to Toggl earlier this year. 🙂 I now use Toggl for my time-tracking (for the few jobs I have that need it — and for my own curiosity as to how the bulk of my time is spent) and PayPal for my invoices.

      So glad that you found a system that works best for YOU! Unless I’m mistaken, Alexis (The Write Life’s Managing Editor) also uses Harvest as her invoicing system, so you’re in good company.

  • Ava says:

    Great information Lauren,

    I didn’t even know Paypal did invoices. I also agree that PayPanther(http://paypanther.com) is amazing. I use it for more than invoicing and it has made organizing all my clients much easier.

    • PayPal should really put the ol’ “Invoice” button in a more prominent spot! It’s even HARDER to find now that they revamped their site! (It’s in itty-bitty text on the left-hand sidebar now).

      And thanks for letting us know what you use in your business life! Always great to get feedback from actual users.

  • Derek Human says:

    Hi,

    Really nice article, we have been using Zoho Invoice for a while now and recently switched over to Cantorix (www.cantorix.com). They are still new but for us its a little cheaper and the functionality is perfect for us. They dont have timesheet billing but we dont use.

  • Andrew says:

    May I suggest another item for your list?

    Check out https://fastinvoice.com

    As well as all the basic invoicing functionality it has automation tools, which will invoice your clients automatically, and even send payment reminders.

  • Kevin Peter says:

    Lauren, I recently came across Replicon’s TimeBill, which is purely for billing your clients based on the time. Have you had any luck trying and reviewing this?

    • Hi, Kevin!

      I got an e-mail about reviewing Replicon from someone at the company; however, that’s not really up to me. I’m just a writer. This article was assigned to me by the editor. If they ever want to do a “Part 2” of this experiment, they’ll probably ask me — or another writer — to look into it.

      In the meantime, thanks for reading the article! 🙂

  • I used Totals plus PayPal. It was a good solution with nice looking invoices. I have been investigating alternatives that support retainer invoicing. So far, Harvest is really too disjointed but the invoices are attractive. Zoho is also a little clunky. Freshbooks is seamless but expensive. Those are the only ones I know of that handle retainers + invoicing + some project management integration.

  • RecurVoice says:

    Great list. You will be able to add http://www.recurvoice.com soon as well.

  • Paula says:

    Hey lauren,

    Try waveapps.com it’s 100% free and unlimited invoicing and clients.

Speak Your Mind

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.